The genus Actinidia Lindl. (Actinidiaceae): A comprehensive review on its ethnobotany, phytochemistry, and pharmacological properties
Emmanuel Nyongesa Waswa, Shixiong Ding, Felix Muema Wambua, Elijah Mbandi Mkala, Elizabeth Syowai Mutinda, Wyclif Ochieng Odago, Sara Getachew Amenu, Samuel Wamburu Muthui, Elive Limunga Linda, Daniel Mutavi Katumo, Catherine Mwende Waema, Jiaxin Yang, Guangwan Hu*
Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Actinidia Lindl. belongs to the family Actinidiaceae. Plants of this genus are popularly known as kiwifruits and are traditionally used to treat a wide range of ailments associated with digestive disorders, rheumatism, kidney problems, cardiovascular system, cancers, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, and diabetes among others.Aim: This review discusses the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical profile, and known pharmacological prop-erties of Actinidia plants, to understand their connotations and provide the scientific basis for future studies.Materials and methods: The data were obtained by surveying journal articles, books, and dissertations using various search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer Link, and Web of Science. The online databases; World Flora Online, Plants of the World Online, International Plant Names Index, and Global Biodiversity Information Facility were used to confirm the distribution and validate scientific names of Actinidia plants. The isolated metabolites from these species were illustrated using ChemBio Draw ultra-version 14.0 software.Results: Ten (10) species of Actinidia genus have been reported as significant sources of traditional medicines utilized to remedy diverse illnesses. Our findings revealed that a total of 873 secondary metabolites belonging to different classes such as terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alcohols, ketones, organic acids, esters, hydrocarbons, and steroids have been isolated from different species of Actinidia. These compounds were mainly related to the exhibited antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, anti-angiogenic, anticinoceptive, anti-tumor, and anticancer activities.Conclusion: This study assessed the information related to the ethnobotanical uses, phytochemical compounds, and pharmacological properties of Actinidia species, which indicate that they possess diverse bioactive metabolites with interesting bioactivities. Actinidia plants have great potential for applications in folklore medicines and pharmaceuticals due to their wide ethnomedicinal uses and biological activities. Traditional uses of several Actinidia species are supported by scientific evidences, qualifying them as possible modern remedies for various ailments. Nonetheless, the currently available data has several gaps in understanding the herbal utilization of most Actinidia species. Thus, further research into their toxicity, mechanisms of actions of the isolated bioactive metabolites, as well as scientific connotations between the traditional medicinal uses and pharmacological properties is required to unravel their efficacy in therapeutic potential for safe clinical application.